4a. Do new-to-English learners have consistent access to appropriate, progressive, well-resourced, collaborative everyday language learning lessons, alongside mainstream lessons? Within early years, is the settling-in period achieved through guided-play context that allows learners to engage with provision? E.g. Establishing a relationship with a key person who can enable personalised learning.
4b. Do learners access collaborative activities that build confidence and a sense of belonging?
4c. Do class teachers and parents know what learning is taking place during new-to-English induction lessons/settling-in period?
4d. Is assessment for learning integral to the induction lessons /settling-in period?
4e. Do learners have access to short, well-paced phonics sessions? In early years, does phonics start with appropriate indoor and outdoor sound discrimination, rhythm and rhyme, alliteration, voice sounds and oral blending and segmenting?
4f. Where possible, do induction lessons/settling-in periods align or link to the school curriculum? Within early years, is it integral to the curriculum goals?
4g. Do learners have some clear strategies to support their language learning beyond the classroom? E.g. mini visits/trips to local areas or places outside the class where they apply their learning.
A set of language structure or vocabulary flashcards for teaching.
After discussion, explain:
Induction-to-English can also be known as:
These should all include associated learner-led learning to ensure learners can take ownership over their language learning.
Trzebiatowski (2017) explains that withdrawing students in small groups can allow them to feel safe and provide them with a step-by-step, well-structured learning environment, which will give them the building blocks they need to access the mainstream classroom.
EAL learners are entitled to a full and varied curriculum, with both the depth of academic language required and the functional everyday language and language of learning.
A study by Thomas and Collier (2002) found that EAL learners do not benefit entirely from mainstream instruction as much as they do when they receive academic content taught by an EAL teacher during withdrawal group sessions. In Thomas and Collier’s (1997) research, they found that learners who had received a withdrawal group programme were later able to access the mainstream classroom and finish school with similar average scores to that of their native-speaking peers. This shows that offering suitable withdrawal can be very effective. Of course, appropriate differentiation within the class is also imperative.
The value of focused induction to English which includes small-group support must not be underestimated.
Work in small groups to support learners with:
This should be based on assessment and offer finely-tuned, time-limited withdrawal.
The Iceberg model shows the need to acquire Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (survival language) and the deeper Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). It also shows how integral the home language is to the language learning experience.
This absolute beginner programme (also known as induction-to-English, a withdrawal, pull-out, intervention or small-group new-to-English programme) offers initial English support for learners arriving in the English-speaking mainstream with little or no English. Although learners should be present in most mainstream lessons, they can attend this small-group induction class regularly (up to 5 lessons a week). It is designed to help learners access some of the basic functional English language they need in a welcoming small-group setting, whilst providing opportunities for learners to feel confident and ready to take risks in language learning. It is designed to support newcomers in feeling safe, settled and valued and to give them a sense of belonging.
This is a resource to support targeted, small-group learning. It is a flexible approach to teaching the vocabulary and language structures needed for Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. It offers support for“individuals or groups of pupils for finely-tuned, time-limited withdrawal.”
It has been designed to provide roughly 45 minutes of targeted learning a day. However, teachers should change times and content to suit their learners’ needs and the context.
It can be taught by an EAL teacher, class teacher or teaching assistant. The lessons are very easy to follow and all grammatical structures are explained clearly.
It is designed as a 12-week structured approach to learning Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (with possible extension).
It is based on assessment, incorporating the Baseline Assessment and the Assessment for Learning.
The teacher of the programme is the expert and should guide the learning of the programme within the structure provided.
Induction to English can focus largely on learning useful vocabulary and language structures.
Choose a lesson that is focused on learning vocabulary through a language structure.
Here the vocabulary topic is ‘classroom vocabulary’ and the language structure is ‘There is… on the table.’
Vocabulary is therefore always learnt in a language structure that can then be applied to other vocabulary topics after the lesson.
For example, it can be applied to a curriculum topic:
There is a drawbridge in the castle.
There are some turrets on the castle.
The learner will already know there is/there are and they will just need to apply it to new vocabulary on castles.
Sessions can be learner-directed, teacher-directed or a combination, occurring pre- or post-mainstream lesson.
Look at the cycle of learning for learner-directed or teacher-directed support. See notes below for further explanation on the slide.
Teacher or student to choose the language learning objective and students to start on either Assess, Learn or Practise, dependent on prior knowledge/learning.
You can engage with the induction in a number of ways:
At the beginning of a session, the connection phase (orientate, assess and build the field) allows the learners to orientate themselves within the context and start building their understanding of the new topic. It also allows both learners and teachers to collaboratively assess understanding.
The activation phase (explore, modelling and joint construction) is for generating ideas on how you use the language. It incorporates modelling and joint construction.
The demonstration phase (refine, practise and move to independence) helps the learners to recall and use the vocabulary or language structures independently.
The consolidation phase (revise, apply and reflect) is a chance for students to revisit as well as to reflect on their learning and to relate the learning to their own lives by applying it to real-life experiences.
Consider the sections of an induction session, starting with ‘Connection’.
At the beginning of a session, the connection phase (orientate, assess and build the field) allows the learners to orientate themselves within the context. It also allows both learners and teachers to collaboratively assess understanding.
Demonstrate this using another language and the language structure or vocabulary flashcards.
The activation phase (explore, modelling and joint construction) is for generating ideas on how you use the language pictured in the flashcard and having a go at that target language.
Demonstrate this using the same language and the language structure or vocabulary flashcards used in the connection activity.
The demonstration phase (refine, independent writing, practise) helps the learners to recall and use the vocabulary or language structures by using a pre-selected method of learning (learners can choose their most effective learning method once they know the games).
Refer to Strand 4 in the Shared Document for the collaborative games.
Demonstrate this using the same language and the language structure or vocabulary flashcards used in the activation activity.
This consolidation phase (revise, apply and reflect) is a chance for students to revisit and reflect on their learning and to relate it to their own lives by applying it to real-life experiences.
Consider the first part of the fourth section of the induction session.
It is split into 3 parts:
Consider the second part of the fourth section of the induction session.
Demonstrate this using the same language and the language structure or vocabulary flashcards used in the demonstration activity.
Here is an example structure of an induction-to-English lesson.
Ensure you have demonstrated the whole process in another language.
Participants should use ‘More information – How it works – in practice (including assessment)’ to create a lesson and teach it to a partner. If they speak another language, they should use it to deliver the induction session.
Refer to Activity 4.2 ‘Create a lesson’ in the Shared Document and the collaborative games immediately below that.
Ask the participants to have a go!
Show the Remember Book picture (it’s a good idea to have a proper example). Explain the function of the Remember Book outlined on the slide (this is recapped from Strand 2).
The Remember Book forms an important part of documenting language learning so that language can be reused and revised outside the small-group sessions. It is also a great way to promote learner agency.
Participants can find information about the Remember Book in the EAL Framework Portal under the Further Learning in Strand 4.
(Time guide: 5 minutes)
Language structures can be displayed either in a classroom or another teaching area. This encourages children to exchange vocabulary within language structures and apply it to other areas of the curriculum.
As mentioned previously, the Learning Village resource is a very helpful tool to support learning with the fundamentals of English (BICS) and some of the academic language (CALP) needed to access the curriculum.
It can be used to complement small-group work, or as a teacher-led aid to supporting the needs of language learners.
Based on assessment, results are clearly tracked over time, allowing teachers to ‘zoom in’ on potential issues.
For more information, register at www.learningvillage.net
All participants should ensure they read any ‘Further learning‘ sections within Strand 4 that were not covered in the session.
Allow participants 5 minutes’ reflection time to add to their Reflection and Action Points notes.
Tasks for participants: